芥子 第50期 50

芥子50期 - 信義宗及天主教神學交談的回顧 從梵二大公會議談起 (胡國楨神父)

 

信義宗及天主教神學交談的回顧
從梵二大公會議談起

胡國楨神父

 

2016年10月31日是馬丁路德把《九十五條論綱》貼在威登堡的聖多默教堂(城堡教堂)大門之後第500年開始的日子。這一天,天主教教宗方濟各和世界信義聯會主席尤南主教,在瑞典倫德市信義會主教座堂共同簽署了一項聯合聲明,重申「兩個教會願意努力走向共融,共同見證基督信仰,為世界謀求福利」。這是雙方展開全球各地共同慶祝宗教改革500週年紀念活動的開幕典禮。這也是本屆神學研習會的序幕。

一、前言
在舉行這項慶祝活動的開幕典禮之前,雙方已經一起籌備了六、七年。從2009年起,信義宗及天主教合一交談委員會(Lutheran-Roman Catholic Commission on Unity)就開始籌劃出版一本名為《從衝突到共融:信義宗及天主教2017年共同舉行宗教改革運動的五百週年慶祝活動》的報告書,這本報告書於2013年發行了 1,其中說明:這次2017年的慶祝,是雙方在梵二大公會議閉幕以來共同舉行有關紀念宗教改革運動的第三次慶祝活動 2
第一次,1980年,雙方共同慶祝奧斯堡信條發表450週年。

1 From Conflict to Communion: Lutheran-Catholic Common Commemoration of the Reformation in 2017 (Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2013),以下簡稱FCC,並加上段號。
2 FCC 1~3.

此次慶祝活動中,雙方在基督信仰的基本真理上發展出了一些共同的理解,藉以指出耶穌基督是我們基督徒信仰生活的核心。第二次,1983年,雙方共同慶祝馬丁路德誕生500週年。此次慶祝活動中,雙方共同確認了多項路德關心的基本論題,並共同宣認路德是「耶穌基督的見證者」(Witness to Jesus Christ) 3

3  FCC 2這兩次全球性的慶祝活動舉行期間台灣正值戒嚴時期美麗島事件爆發的政治白色恐佈期間台灣基督長老教會又涉入其中,因而台灣基督宗教界並未注意到並參與這些慶祝活動

 

2017年的這個第三次共同慶祝活動,意義尤其重大。因為這次是在大公主義基督徒合一運動的時代中、也是在全球化的時代中、又是在新興宗教運動蓬勃發展及世俗化現象逐漸增多的時代中所舉行的慶祝活動 4 。這次慶祝將「以馬丁路德這個人以及他的思想為中心」,並回顧「天主教與信義宗在交談中討論的議題及威登堡宗教改革(Wittenberg Reformation)的後果」,這對當代天主教和信義宗來說,都構成了靈修及神學上的挑戰  5
我們這次神學研習會各講題,是以《從衝突到共融》這本報告書作為藍本:[主題一]先談馬丁路德及其宗教改革運動的歷史意義 6;而後,[主題二]及[主題三]討論宗教改革運動的發展以及天主教回應的歷史過程,包括特利騰大公會議的召開及天主教隨之而來的革新 7;接著,以四個主題演講來談雙方合一交談委員會,從梵二以來迄今所達成的一些共識性瞭解:因信稱/成義 8、感恩聖事 9、聖職 10 、聖經與傳承 11、福音與教會 12

4 FCC 4~15.

5 FCC 3.

6 FCC 16~34.

7 FCC 35~101.

8 FCC 102~139.

9 FCC 140~161.

10 FCC 162~194.

11 FCC 195~210.

12 FCC 211~218.

 

我們之所以能夠走向合一,並共同舉行慶祝活動的基礎,是由於我們都在基督內接受了聖洗聖事,因而可以在福音內分享喜樂、一起祈禱,讓我們為過去所造成的分裂而懺悔 13,一起「努力走向共融,共同見證基督信仰,為世界謀求福利」14

 

13 FCC 219~237.<br/>

14 參閱:20161031天主教教宗方濟各和世界信義聯會主席尤南主教,在瑞典倫德市信義會主教座堂共同簽署的聯合


二、簡介信義宗教會的現況
一般說來,天主教的組織結構比較單純,容易掌握。相對地,信義宗的教會就比較複雜,一般人不太容易全盤了解。因此,在正式進入正題以前,我們先簡單說明一下信義宗教會的現況。

(一)台灣信義宗教會的現況
信義宗在台灣,目前共有六個總會,每個總會理論上都有一個相當於天主教稱為主教職權的「監督」(bishop)。不過,信義宗六個總會之間的共融關係,並不像台灣天主教的六個教區之間的共融關係一樣,同屬一個主教團,每年有幾次定期聚會共商信理及牧靈各項事務;信義宗在台灣的六個總會彼此間的共融性比較弱,各自的獨立性相對較強,所以不能說他們在神學觀念上有共識,在牧靈政策上會同步。在面對大公主義基督徒合一運動及神學交談相關議題上,信義宗六個總會之間也各有不同的態度,無法採取同一步伐。信義宗在台灣的六個總會是:
(1) 台灣信義會:主要合作的差會是來自美國的Evangelical Lutheran Church in American,參與本次研習會的俞繼斌及曹正烜兩位牧師屬於這個總會。
(2) 中華民國基督教台灣信義會:主要合作的差會是來自芬蘭的Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Mission,參與本次研習會的陳冠賢及柯安得兩位牧師屬於這個總會。
(3) 中國信義會:主要合作的差會是來自挪威的Norwegian Lutheran Mission。
(4) 中華信義會:主要合作的差會是Lutheran Brethren Church。
(5) 福音信義會:主要合作的差會是來自挪威的Norwegian Mission Society。
(6) 中華福音道信義會:主要合作的差會是來自美國的Lutheran Church Missouri Synod。

(二)全球信義宗教會的現況
全球屬於信義宗的眾教會現在有著兩大集團:「世界信義宗聯會」(Lutheran World Federation,簡稱LWF)及「國際信義宗協會」(International Lutheran Council,簡稱ILC)。
世界信義宗聯會(LWF):1947年創立於瑞典倫德市,也就是這次雙方共同選擇作為這次慶祝宗教改革500週年紀念活動的開幕典禮的城市。目前在全球98個國家中,世界信義宗聯會有145個會員教會,會友共有7200萬人。台灣至少有三個信義宗總會屬於這個集團的會員教會:台灣信義會、中華民國基督教台灣信義會、中國信義會。
國際信義宗協會(ILC):1993年成立於瓜地馬拉。目前國際信義宗協會在全球34個國家中有會員教會,會友共有345萬人。請注意:有些本協會(ILC)會員教會並沒有加入世界信義宗聯會(LWF)。台灣的中華福音道信義會屬於這個集團的會員教會,但並沒有加入世界信義宗聯會(LWF)。
至於在台灣的中華信義會及福音信義會,是否加入了上述兩個集團的任何一個,不清楚。

三、促成雙方官方神學交談的遠因
梵二大公會議並非基督徒合一神學交談的起始點,而是最關鍵性的轉捩點。其實,各宗派間的交談並非開始於官方間的正式互動,而是雙方信徒及神學家之間的友誼交往。所以,要討論合一交談,應該從十九世紀末、廿世紀初的大公主義基督徒合一運動談起。

(一)普世基督教會協會(WCC)
十九世紀末,許多新教的宣教士,看到各宗派教會間有不少紛爭,彼此攻訐,給外人對基督宗教有負面的印象。於是發起了大公主義基督徒合一運動。這群有志之士召集了好多會議,並在1910年的愛丁堡普世宣教大會中成立了「普世基督教會協會」(World Council of Churches ,以下簡稱WCC)。這個協會致力推動大公主義基督徒合一運動,組織各種商討各宗派間有關「信仰與教制」的問題。其中發展出的一個最重要成果是1982年發表的《利馬文件》,針對各宗派的「聖洗、聖餐及聖職」之見解提出一項有共識的文件。
發展至今,WCC的會員教會,差不多包括天主教之外的整個基督宗教世界中的大部分教會。雖然天主教官方並沒有直接加入成為WCC的會員,但是梵二之後,天主教與這個協會合作得十分密切,不僅每次WCC重要的會議都派有觀察員與會,而且每年全球基督徒合一祈禱週的《祈禱手冊》,都是由WCC與宗座基督徒合一促進委員會共同擬定的。台灣各宗派共同組織的「教會合作協會」非常支持WCC與天主教每年共同推展合一祈禱週的活動,雙方共同擬定的合一祈禱週《祈禱手冊》,也翻譯成中文,有天主教版本,也有基督新教的版本。 可是,在台灣基督新教教會中,除了長老教會以及少數神學基礎較強的學者型牧師之外,都是所謂的「台灣基要派」,幾乎全都反對WCC,根本原因在曾慶豹教授的大作《約瑟和他的兄弟們》一書中有詳盡分析:簡單的說,就是他們在台灣先前的戒嚴期間(1990年代之前),受到當時政治氣氛的影響,幾乎全都成了堅決主張護教反共的「黨國基督徒」,他們的特色就是一切以反對共產主義為信仰的核心,因而反對與WCC有任何接觸,因為WCC接納了在共產政權底下的東正教會,也接受了宗教改革以來新教在立場一直反對的天主教會 15

      15 曾慶豹《約瑟和他的兄弟們護教反共、黨國基督徒與台灣基要派的形成台南台灣基督長老教會台灣教會公報社2016),121

這也就是為什麼在台灣推動大公主義基督徒合一運動不太容易的根本原因;不過,近幾年來,透過牧師及神父們間友誼性接觸的增加、牧靈性事工上的合作,並在神學方面也有交談,相信上述困境是可以克服的。

 

(二)神學學者之間的友誼交往與神學交談
不只大公主義基督徒合一運動不是由教會官方開始發起的,合一性的神學交談也不是由教會官方開始的,而是靠各宗派間神學家們私下的友誼交往,並在友誼的氣氛下中交換神學觀點開始的。這個情況在歐洲大陸的德國及法國尤其引人注目。
在德國,1920年代,第一次世界大戰結束之後,改革宗學者巴特(Karl Barth, 1886~1968)、信義宗學者田立克(Paul Tillich, 1886~1965)和天主教學者普日瓦拉(Erich Przywara, 1889~1972)之間的友誼交往及神學交談,確實彼此影響了對方,並逐漸地改變了整個神學界的思路 16

 

16 Thomas Franklin O’Meara, “Paul Tillich in Catholic Thought: the Past and the Future,” Paul Tillich: A New Catholic Assessment (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1994), pp.17~22.

 

 

巴特因為與普日瓦拉交談,晚年更深入研究有關教會論的主題,因而改寫了其相關系統神學的作品  17。田立克也曾一度考慮:與其成為一名德國的國家社會主義者,倒不如成為一名天主教徒 18 。普日瓦拉不只在後來的梵二大公會議中有所發揮,連天主教最有影響力的神學家拉內(Karl Rahner, 1904~1984)和巴爾塔撒(Hans Urs von Balthasar, 1905~1988)兩人,都曾自豪地宣稱自己是普日瓦拉的學生,雖然普日瓦拉從來沒有執過教鞭 19 。可見他對天主教神學界後輩的影響力有多深。
在法國,有一個由各宗派神學學者一起組織的大公性質的聖母學會,從1937年起每年集會 20
     

17 同上,p.19. 

18  P. Tillich, On the Boundary (New York: Scribner, 1966), p.39.

19 T. F. O’Meara, “Paul Tillich in Catholic Thought: the Past and the Future,” p.22.

20 Kathleen Coyle, Mary: So Full of God, Yet So Much Ours (Manila: Logos Publications, 2010), p.15.

 

以上這些具有前瞻性非官方友誼性交談的重要性不容小覷,它們的影響力極為深遠,不只直接、間接地成為催生梵二大公會議的遠因之一,而且打開了建基於不同神學思想結構和系統中的類比內涵,尤其促成以多瑪斯及路德兩位為代表的宗派神學體系之間的比較性研究,使得路德的神學觀在幾百年後與天主教神學觀有了真正交談的機會。

(三)歷史觀的改變
過去發生的事是無法改變的;然而,對過去的記憶及記憶的方式,的確是會隨著時間的推移而有所改變。……我們不是在訴說一個不同的歷史,而是以不同的方式來訴說那同一段歷史 21
《從衝突到共融》(FCC)這本報告書以上述這段話來說明:歷史觀的改變促使信義宗和天主教雙方,對馬丁路德及宗教改革這段中世紀的歷史有了新的關注點,更加關注大量神學之外的其他因素──政治、經濟、社會和文化等因素 22 。於是,「中世紀晚期,不再像過去新教徒所想的一樣,往往被描述為一個完全黑暗的時代;也不再像過去天主教徒所想的一樣,被認為是完全光明」 23 。這些因素使得新歷史學方法把路德描繪成一個「真誠的宗教人」、一個「會真心誠意祈禱的人」24 ,而且,路德當時所想要打倒的「天主教信仰理念及生活方式」(Catholicism),並不全然是天主教的,只不過是「中世紀晚期的教會生活與教導」而已。路德所反對的這種「天主教信仰理念及生活方式」確實是個危機,為當時宗教改革運動提供了火上加油的燃料,使得一些人相當信服路德所提出的抗議,進而造成一發不可收拾的分裂局面 25
的確,基督徒合運動的推展、神學家們的友誼性交談與歷史觀的改變這三項因素,正是促成當今信義宗及天主教雙方走向合一神學交談的遠因。
      

21 FCC 16.

22 FCC 18.

23 FCC 19.

24 FCC 22.

25 FCC 21.

 

四、梵二大公會議促成了官方式的神學交談
1959年元月25日、保祿宗徒歸化慶日,教宗若望廿三世在他當選後不到100天,就在羅馬聖保祿大殿宣佈有意召開大公會議。他為大會設定三個總目標:(1)教會精神的復興;(2)教會牧靈態度與作法的與時俱進(aggionamento);(3)促進基督徒間的合一  26
經過一年多的初步籌劃,大公會議正式的籌備委員會於1960年6 月5日成立,其中設有「促進基督徒合一秘書處」(Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity) 27 。這個秘書處的初期任務是負責邀約基督宗教各宗派,派遣觀察員來參加梵二大公會議。1962年7月20日,秘書處發函邀請分離的各宗派教會和團體,請他們派代表蒞會作觀察員,邀請的對象中包括了世界信義宗聯會(LWF)。

        

26 James H. Kroeger劉德松譯《梵二開啟的旅程》台北光啟2013),29

27 陳文裕《梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議簡史》台北上智1989),37~42

 

促進基督徒合一秘書處從開始就負有起草《大公主義法令》(Unitatis redintegratio)的職責,其間也合併了神學委員會及東方禮教會委員會所提的類似草案,並經過數度修改 28,最後的版本在1964年第三會期中的11月21日正式通過 29
不過,天主教與世界信義宗聯會官方性質的神學交談,已經在《大公主義法令》正式通過之前,於1964年7月正式展開了。天主教及世界信義宗聯會(LWF)雙方各派代表若干人,組織起「合一交談委員會」(Lutheran-Roman Catholic Commission on Unity),這個委員會每年都有一兩次組織「神學家交談小組」,分別在全世界各地舉行交談會議,一直到今天都沒有中斷,總共超過了50次。原本只有世界信義宗聯會(LWF)推派的神學家參與交談;到了2013年10月,國際信義宗協會(ILC)也開始參與這項與天主教官方所派代表之神學交談小組了。
最近一次是2016年5月6~7日,在德國Erfurt的奧斯定會隱修院舉行,這裡是路德加入的修會會院,這次有四位天主教神學家代表、四位信義宗代表參與。再前一次是2015 年10月7~8日在德國Oberursel的一所信義宗神學院校園舉行,有五位天主教代表、五位信義宗代表參與。再前一次是2014年6月24~25日在加拿大Winnipeg信義宗聯會總部舉行,有四位天主教代表、三位信義宗代表參與。再往前是2014年1月23~26日在非洲衣索比亞Addis Ababa神學院校園舉行,雙方代表人數不詳 30
最初,雙方是從有關尼西亞大公會議中教會信理的地位問題開始討論起(1965,尚在大公會議期間),接著談雙方共識性比較強的聖洗聖事(1966)及感恩聖事(1968)。根據宗座促進基督徒合一委員會(Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity)的資料顯示,五十年來討論過的正式議題有以下十二項 31
1. 有關尼西亞大公會議中教會信理的地位問題(1965開始討論)
2. 有關唯一洗禮赦罪的問題(1966)
3. 有關感恩聖事的祭獻性(1968)
4. 有關感恩聖事與聖職的問題(1970)
5. 有關教宗首席權及普世教會的問題(1973)
6. 有關教會訓導權與不可錯的問題(1978)
7. 有關因信成/稱義的問題(1983)
8. 有關唯一中保及聖人和瑪利亞的問題(1990)
9. 有關聖經與傳承的問題(1995)
10. 有關教會是救恩性共融體,即教會結構及聖職的問題(2004)
11. 有關永生希望的問題(2010)
12. 有關教導性職務的問題(2011)
      

28 陳文裕《梵蒂岡第二屆大公會議簡史》123~128 

29 同上174

 

30 請參閱:http://ilc-online.org/tag/dialogue/

 

31 參閱:https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lutheran–Roman_ Catholic_dialogue #cite_note-5

 

 

    
五、交談結果所發表的文獻

五十年來的交談結果,發表了不少文獻,依其重要性可分為三類:

(1)雙方教會當局正式簽署的聯合聲明:這種聯合聲明的重要性最高,總共也只有一個,也就是雙方教會的代表於1999年10月31日在德國奧斯堡正式簽署的《有關成/稱義教義的聯合聲明》(Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification,以下簡稱JDDJ)。這項聲明,世界循道衛理宗協會的代表,也於2006年7月23日在南韓首爾加入簽署。據說:普世聖公宗教會也正在考慮是否加入簽署。可見這份文獻的真理性價值極高,可以為多數基督徒接受。

(2)雙方正式委任的合一交談委員會發表的聯合聲明報告書:這類報告書的重要性其次,總共有十個,隨著交談進行的過程,分別在五個交談階段中發表 32 。第一交談階段在1967~1972年之間,這是初步的接觸,結果發表了一份文件,題名《福音與教會》(The Gospel and the Church,又稱馬爾他報告書Malta Report,1972),擬定了未來交談的定位及方向。《從衝突到共融》(FCC)報告書最後也重申了《福音與教會》所擬定的交談定位及方向 33     

32 閱:FCC, p.91.

33 FCC 211~218.        

第二交談階段在1973~1984年之間,這段期間橫跨了1980年奧斯堡信條發表450週年、以及1983年馬丁路德誕生500週年的兩次慶祝活動,收獲特別豐盛。其間,合一交談委員會一共發表了六份聯合聲明報告書:《感恩聖事》(The Eucharist, 1978);《萬眾都在同一基督之下》(All Under One Christ, 1980);《邁向團體的方法》(Way to Community, 1980);《教會中的職務》(The Ministry in the Church, 1981);《馬丁路德:基督的見證者》(Martin Luther - Witness to Christ, 1983);《面向合一:天主教與信義宗教會共融團契的樣態、型式及階段》(Facing Unity – Models, Forms and Phases of Catholic-Lutheran Church Fellowhip, 1984)。
第三交談階段在1986~1993年之間,發表了最重要的《教會與成/稱義》(Church and Justification, 1993),這份聯合聲明報告書直接促成了1999年JDDJ聯合聲明的簽署。
第四交談階段在1995~2006年之間,發表了《教會的宗徒性》(The Apostolicity of the Church, 2006)。
第五交談階段由2009年開始,截至目前為止尚未結束,並於2003年發表了我們這次神學研習會奉為藍本的《從衝突到共融》(FCC)。

(3)雙方神學家非官方友誼性交談後發表的文獻,以及雙方官方對這文獻之態度反應的文獻:這類文獻最重要的有兩個。第一個是1983年由美國信義宗及天主教神學家合撰的《因信稱義/成義》(Justification by Faith)文獻;第二個是1986年由德國基督新教及天主教神學家合撰的《宗教改革運動時期的教義譴責──裂痕依舊?》(The Condemnations of the Reformation Era ─ Do They Still Divide?)文獻。這兩份文獻,日後都獲得雙方教會的正式接納,尤其是第二份文獻:天主教宗座促進基督徒合一委員會在1992年做了認可的評估報告,但文獻沒有發表;世界信義宗聯會在1994年發表了認可的回應文獻。這些都是促成1999年雙方以官方方式正式簽署JDDJ的重要因素 34        

34 JDDJ 3.


六、總結
信義宗及天主教雙方神學交談了五十年,最大的共識是彼此瞭解到對方所說的「成義」或「稱義」(Justification),與己方的懂法並沒有太大出入。這是最大的突破,彼此不必因此而「譴責」對方了。可是,「裂痕」還在嗎?

(一)雙方共識的範圍仍待加強
從雙方合一交談委員會所發表的各項報告書來看,根本不為聖洗聖事上的共識操心,雙方共同發表一份報告書,並且肯定「我們都在基督內接受了聖洗聖事,這是我們之所以能夠走向合一的基礎」 35
雙方第一個發表的共同聲明報告書時間在1978年,題名《感恩聖事/聖餐禮拜》(The Eucharist)。在這一議題上,雙方的確真正有共識,雙方一致同意:在感恩聖事/聖餐禮拜中,復活的耶穌基督真實臨在;而且,感恩聖事/聖餐禮拜有祭獻性,是耶穌基督十字架祭獻成效的實現,是教會(參與者)的感恩祭與讚頌祭 36
雙方最後一個發表的共同聲明報告書時間在2006年,題名《教會的宗徒性》(The Apostolicity of the Church)。在這一議題上,所談的是有關聖職、聖經及傳承……等問題,至於雙方是否真的有共識?請在後天幾講中拭目以待、洗耳恭聽 37
顯然,還有很長一段交談的路在前面等著我們努力,讓共識的範圍繼續增大。
       

35 FCC 219~222. 

36 FCC 140~161.

37 FCC 162~210.

 

(二)天主教對馬丁路德的譴責已經取消了嗎?
本人連續二十多年來,一直都在輔大宗教研究所及神學院開設「大公主義及宗教交談」相關課程。這類課程不能空講理論,還需要帶著學生校外教學,參訪各宗教的道場,以及各宗派的教會。
1999年信義宗與天主教共同簽署《有關成/稱義教義的聯合聲明》(JDDJ)之後,碰到信義宗的朋友,常被問到一個問題:十六世紀時,天主教認為馬丁路德主張「因信稱義」,說他是異端,開除了他的教籍;如今,信義宗與天主教雙方已經同意「因信稱義」與「因信成義」並不彼此衝突,換句話說,馬丁路德已經不再是異端了,被開除教籍的理由已經不存在了,那麼,為什麼天主教還不正式宣佈「恢復」馬丁路德的教籍?

其實,之所以會有這樣的問題出現,最主要的關鍵在於很多人把excommunication這個字懂成「開除教籍」。不過,這樣的懂法是不對的。

是的,教宗良十世的確給了馬丁路德60天期限,要是路德不撤回他的「錯誤」,否則他就將面對excommunication的處分了 38 。可是,路德並沒有撤回。因而,教宗良十世就在1521年1月3日,發佈《相稱羅馬宗座》(Decet Romanum Pontificem)詔書,將路德excommunicated了 39

 

38 FCC 50Pope Leo gave Luther sixty days either to recant his“errors” or face excommunication.”

 

39 FCC 50Luther was excommunicated by the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem on 3 January 1521.”

 

Excommunication既然不是「開除教籍」的意思,究竟何解?其實,excommunication源自拉丁文的ex(出)及communis(相通、共融),指的是「排除在共融之外」。天主教傳統上把這個字譯作「出通功」,意思是「我們之間沒有共融關係了」;「我們不讓你領我們的聖體」;「我們也不領你的聖體」。

例如,今天有一位太太離婚再婚了,本堂神父不讓她領聖體,這位太太就是處在「出通功」(excommunication)的狀態中。本堂神父仍然歡迎她每天來參加彌撒,她也積極參與堂區的善會,為堂區牧靈作志工。你說她被開除教籍了嗎?不,她並沒有被迫離開教會,也沒有主動離開教會,她只是被「出通功」了,只要她改善她的現況,辦個妥當的和好聖事,不必教會宣佈什麼,她就恢復以往可以領聖體的狀態了。
另外,也有人把excommunication譯作「絕罰」,表面上看起來,沒有「開除教籍」那麼嚴重,但也不是那麼恰當。因為既然是「絕罰」,就表示是沒有轉圜的餘地了。其實,由上述這位離婚再婚太太的例子,似乎不應該把excommunication這個字想像得那麼悲觀絕望。
所以,沒有錯,馬丁路德確實被教宗良十世給excommunicated了。但,若把這事件的中文表達,譯為「馬丁路德被教宗良十世頒佈的《相稱羅馬宗座》詔書給開除教籍」,這是顯然的錯誤;若譯為「馬丁路德因教宗良十世頒佈的《相稱羅馬宗座》詔書而受到絕罰」,也不是很恰當的譯法。本人建議:把excommunication這個字,恢復教會傳統的譯法「出通功」:「馬丁路德因教宗良十世頒佈的《相稱羅馬宗座》詔書,而受到出通功的處分」。
如此分析,我們知道馬丁路德並不是被宣佈「開除教籍」,那麼就沒有需要宣佈讓他「恢復教籍」這回事了。所以,「天主教是否為路德平反,宣佈恢復他的教籍?」的問法,似乎是不太恰當的問法。那麼,這個問題該怎麼問,才比較恰當呢?本人認為最妥當的問法是:「天主教在十六世紀對馬丁路德的譴責,現在已經取消了嗎?」

誠如本神學研習會採用作為藍本的《從衝突到共融》(FCC)聯合聲明報告書的基本立場:我們要以新的歷史觀來詮釋這個事件 40 。1999年信義宗及天主教共同簽署了《有關成/稱義教義的聯合聲明》(JDDJ),這行動顯示雙方已經把十六世紀宗教改革時期彼此的譴責一筆勾消了,但聯合聲明說:當時彼此譴責的理由仍值得重視,應在我們日後的教導和實踐上特別留意。聯合聲明本身的文字是這樣的:

按這些(雙方交談後取得的)共識,十六世紀所做的相關譴責,如今已不再適用於今天的對方身上了。 41

十六世紀的教義譴責,從其與成義/稱義教義有關的方面而言,現已出現了新的曙光:信義宗在本聲明中所陳述的教導,不再受特利騰大公會議的譴責。同樣,羅馬天主教會在本聲明所陳述的教導,也不再受信義宗信條的譴責。 42

與成義/稱義教義有關譴責的嚴重性,並沒有消除。其中有一些也不是完全沒有道理的。對於我們來說,這些譴責應該是「有益的警告」,應該在我們的教導和實踐上特別留意。 43       

40 FCC 16.

41 JDDJ 13.

42 JDDJ 41.

 

43 JDDJ 42.

  

是的,這項聯合聲明本身已經為馬丁路德平反了。至於天主教方面,有沒有主動取消對路德本人的譴責?可以用《從衝突到共融》(FCC)報告書中的三個實例來說明:

1. 維勒布蘭德樞機主教(Johannes Cardinal Willebrands:教廷基督徒合一促進委員會前部長),1970年7月15日,在對世界信義宗聯會第五屆全體大會的演講中,肯定了路德在人格及神學雙方面的核心特質 44

2. 教宗若望保祿二世,在1983年為慶祝馬丁路德誕生500週年,寫給維勒布蘭德樞機主教寫的信中,稱路德是個「福音的見證者」(witness to the gospel) 45       

44 FCC 29並請參閱:Jan Willebrands, “Lecture to the 5th Assembly of the Lutheran World Federation, on July 15, 1970,” in La Documentation Catholique (6 September 1970), p.766.

 

45 FCC 29並請參閱:John Paul II, “Letter to Cardinal Willebrands for the Fifth Centenary of the Birth of Martin Luther,” in Information Service, no.52 (1983/II), pp.83~84.

 

3. 教宗本篤十六世,於2011年參訪路德加入奧思定會時生活過六年的爾弗特(Erfurt)修院時,承認馬丁路德的人格及神學對今日天主教神學在靈修及神學上有著挑戰。他說 46
[路德]不斷操練的就是天主的問題,這是在他整個人生的旅途中深深使他痛苦、也不斷驅策著他的動力:『我如何能找到恩慈的天主?』──這個問題在心裡鞭策他,是他整個神學探索及內心掙扎的基礎。對他來說,神學並不只是純粹的學術追求,而且還是一場自我掙扎,是一場為了天主、也與天主在一起的掙扎。『我如何能找到恩慈的天主?』事實上,這個問題是他整個生命沒

有停止過的驅策動力,這點讓我留下很深的印象。今天有誰真正關注到這點──即便在基督徒之中呢?在我們的生命中,天主的問題究竟有什麼意義?在我們的宣講中又有什麼意義?今天,大多數人,甚至基督徒,所設定的前提:在我們的罪惡和美德中,根本對天主不感興趣。       

46 FCC 30並請參閱:Benedict XVI, “Address,” Meeting with the Council of the Evangelical Church in Germany, September 23, 2011.

 

以上三個實例都是從1970年代以來,天主教官方在正式場合對路德的表揚,肯定他是天主教教友的模範,尤其教宗本篤十六的這一段話,簡直是把路德形容得像一位精修聖人了。請問:這些教會官方在正式場合對路德的表揚,是否足以表達十六世紀對路德的譴責已經不存在了?既然肯定他可以成為天主教友的模範,是否已經成了共融的一家人了?
是的,十六世紀天主教對馬丁路德的譴責已經不復存在,他現在是與我們共融在一起的家人,也是我們靈修生活的模範。

原載:神學論集192期(2017夏),167~187頁

 

【附錄】馬丁路德反對的不是「贖罪券」
       而是「買賣大赦的風氣」

1517年10月31日,路德在威登堡聖多默教堂(城堡教堂)大門上張貼《九十五條論綱》(Ninety-five Theses),題名為《駁斥有關大赦的效能》(Disputation on the Efficacy and Power of Indulgences)。

何謂「大赦」? Indulgence這個字源自拉丁文的indulgere(寬赦、容忍),指對有限、缺點及罪惡的受造物之容忍和藹的態度。「大赦」指在教會比較物化(reification)的傳統神學背景下,將教會稱為「救恩寶庫」(其中包括基督和聖人們的善行與功德)中的寶藏分施給信友及亡者的靈魂,使他們免除全部或部分的罪罰;其意義是在表達天主無限的仁慈及諸聖相通功。

如何能夠得到「大赦」?其實,大赦基本上要與和好聖事中的補贖行動有關。拿最近一次聖年大赦的活動為例:要獲得一次全大赦,必須去主教指定的朝聖地朝聖,在朝聖地辦一次妥當的和好聖事,並恭領聖體。換句話說,要獲得「大赦」的條件之一是辦了妥當的和好聖事,而「大赦,是在『罪過已蒙赦免』之後,因罪過而當受的暫罰也在天主前獲得寬免」 47        

47 天主教教理19961471

 

整個要以朝聖行動獲取大赦的活動中,可能牽涉與金錢有關的部大概是和好聖事中神父給的補贖一項。有一次,本人莫名其妙地接到一個陪伴愛滋病患的慈善團體的電話,說我捐了兩萬元給他們,問我是否需要開立可以抵稅的收據?但,我並沒有捐錢給他們啊!後來仔細想想,一定是在一次聽告解時,給的補贖是要請當事人多多關照愛滋病患,他就以本人的名義捐給這個機構兩萬元,且把我的電話留給他們;若這位教友因此而得到一次全大赦,算是買賣全大赦嗎?值得深思。有時,我給的補贖是請告解者支持某某教堂的重建工程,雖然沒有明說要他捐獻,為這個教堂重建工程而祈禱也是支持的行動,但會以捐款來表達支持的人相信也不少;若這位教友因這次捐款而得到一次全大赦,算是買賣全大赦嗎?

很遺憾,不少人在談論馬丁路德《九十五條論綱》時,都把indulgence這個字譯成中文的「赦罪券」或「贖罪券」;連天主教的學者都有這樣這樣翻譯的。其實,譯作「赦罪券」是絕對錯誤的,因為為得大赦的先決條件是「罪過已蒙赦免」,一般來說,神父在告解中是先赦了罪之後才給補贖的,所以補贖不是赦罪的先決條件,因為做了補贖而得到的大赦與「赦罪」無關。

至於譯作「贖罪券」如何?本人認為只對了一半,因為「罪」只能「被赦」,是無法「被贖」的,所贖的是「罪罰」。所以,「贖罪罰券」是比較可以接受的意譯,但並不準確。

那張紙怎麼稱比較好?有人主張譯作「大赦證明書」。其實,路德在乎的不是那張紙,而是想大家來討論當時教會的某些人士推行大赦時的宣講方式及實施方法。

所以,本人建議:以後談論這個事件時,要說路德在《九十五條論綱》中所討論的,不是「赦罪與否」的問題,也不是「赦罪後教會給的補贖是否可以給予大赦」的問題,而是「是否可以用捐獻方式作為告解後的補贖,並因此作為發放大赦的條件」的問題,更嚴重的是還因此發給書面的「大赦證明書」。

當然,今日天主教已經改正當時路德提出的不良做法了。不知路德在看到今天天主教對大赦的做法後,會有什麼建議。當然,今天天主教的做法,仍然還有可以改進的空間。希望天主教內部所發出的革新之聲音,不會再受到五百年前路德所遭受的待遇。

原載:神學論集192期(2017夏),167~187頁

Print Friendly and PDF


留言

名字:LesAbrany

Erectile Dysfunction Drugs Online http://cialibuy.com - Buy Cialis Cialis Generico Pagamento In Contrassegno <a href=http://cialibuy.com>Buy Cialis</a> Dianabol Nolvadex

名字:Matgrooky

Propecia Sexual Side Effects http://cialibuy.com - Cialis Propecia Hair Loss Treatment For Women <a href=http://cialibuy.com>Buy Cialis</a> Prix Viagra Levitra Cialis

名字:VeraByday

buying viagra on weekends

https://viagraonline20up.com/ - buy generic viagra

<a href="https://viagraonline20up.com/">buy viagra</a>viagra ohne rezept auslan

https://viagraonlinegfsd.com/ - online viagra

<a href="https://viagraonlinegfsd.com/">viagra without doctor prescription</a>vente viagra livraison gratuit

https://viagrashippingtoday.com/ - buy viagra

<a href="https://viagrashippingtoday.com/">viagra online</a>viagra tumblr

https://viagratodaybest.com/ - viagra

<a href="https://viagratodaybest.com/">online viagra</a>

名字:WollByday

is fort lauderdale

0584 is pills auckland

0584

名字:LizaByday

5f7521 viagra sales online in uk

https://viagratodo20.com/ - viagra over the counter walmart

名字:HeplerByday

why cialis price different

http://cialisuqpor.com/ - cheap cialis online

<a href="http://cialisuqpor.com/">buy generic cialis</a>enter site how to get cialis

http://cialisuqwc.com/ - buy cialis online

<a href="http://cialisuqwc.com/">discount cialis</a>ordine cialis online

http://cialisuyew.com/ - cheap cialis online

<a href="http://cialisuyew.com/">cheap cialis</a>buying cialis now

http://cialisyytr.com/ - online cialis

<a href="http://cialisyytr.com/">generic cialis</a>

名字:SvetaByday

horn viagra

http://viagraoier.com/ - viagra online

<a href="http://viagraoier.com/">buy viagra online</a>name for viagra

https://viagraonline20up.com/ - generic viagra

<a href="https://viagraonline20up.com/">online viagra</a>bob dole and viagra

https://viagraonlinegfsd.com/ - buy viagra

<a href="https://viagraonlinegfsd.com/">buy viagra online</a>wow buy viagra using paypal

https://viagrashippingtoday.com/ - buy viagra online

<a href="https://viagrashippingtoday.com/">buy viagra</a>

名字:NitaiByday

usefull link viagra order

https://viagraonlinegfsd.com/ - viagra

<a href="https://viagraonlinegfsd.com/">online viagra</a>levitra mit viagra kombinieren

https://viagrashippingtoday.com/ - viagra cheap

<a href="https://viagrashippingtoday.com/">viagra cheap</a>acheter viagra dhea

https://viagratodaybest.com/ - canadian viagra

<a href="https://viagratodaybest.com/">viagra online</a>cialis e viagra insieme

https://viagratodo20.com/ - how to get viagra without a doctor

<a href="https://viagratodo20.com/">how to get viagra without a doctor</a>

名字:IngaByday

order is lowest price

1a96 is on cheap be

1a96 at is on line europe

1a96 law essay assignment help toronto ontario

1a96

名字:YuitoByday

prescripcin is en u s

cdb6

名字:YuitoByday

acquisto is in germania

cdb6

名字:PashaByday

cialis generico rom

http://cialisyytr.com/ - cheap cialis

<a href="http://cialisyytr.com/">generic cialis online</a>cialis 12 preisvergleic

http://ciaviagogogo.com/ - cialis online

<a href="http://ciaviagogogo.com/">cialis</a>we like it cialis profesional

http://cilapharm.com/ - buy cialis

<a href="http://cilapharm.com/">buy cialis</a>write research for me

https://edpillsnews20.com/ - viagra online pharmacy

<a href="https://edpillsnews20.com/">viagra buy</a>

名字:PashaByday

cialis generika 20 mg kaufen

http://cialisyytr.com/ - cheap cialis

<a href="http://cialisyytr.com/">buy cialis online</a>cialis common dosage

http://ciaviagogogo.com/ - cialis online

<a href="http://ciaviagogogo.com/">buy cialis online</a>buy cheap brand cialis

http://cilapharm.com/ - buy generic cialis

<a href="http://cilapharm.com/">online cialis</a>custom science project

https://edpillsnews20.com/ - buy viagra

<a href="https://edpillsnews20.com/">viagra</a>

名字:InessaByday

c82811 asda pharmacy cialis price



<a href="http://cilapharm.com/">buy generic cialis</a>

名字:GalinaByday

3cfd11 purchase viagra in canada



<a href="https://sildenonline.com/">buy sildenafil online no prescription</a>

名字:RushanByday

controlled is substance

d937 overnight is to us

d937

名字:LelyaByday

payday loans el paso tx 79912

6468

名字:LelyaByday

fast cash positioning

6468

名字:SadokByday

is 10mg

d937 is be tadalafil

d937 legal writing services

d937

名字:ElenaByday

922221 where to find viagra in london

http://viagener2020.com/ - viagra generic

名字:LyubomirByday

pillole cialis prezzo

http://cialisuqwc.com/ - cialis for sale

<a href="http://cialisuqwc.com/">cheap cialis</a>cialis acquisto in italia

http://cialisuyew.com/ - cheap cialis online

<a href="http://cialisuyew.com/">buy cialis</a>cialis overnight no pe

http://cialisyytr.com/ - cialis online

<a href="http://cialisyytr.com/">buy cialis online</a>i recommend 20 mg cialis cost

http://ciaviagogogo.com/ - cheap cialis

<a href="http://ciaviagogogo.com/">generic cialis online</a>

名字:DamlaByday

f4d721 good choice buy viagra

https://sildenonline.com/ - sildenafil online mexico

名字:LofaroByday

amazon uk is soft

99a2

名字:NiceByday

is shop hollan

49e2 i do in be australia is

49e2 is legal in england

49e2

名字:KamaByday

unsecured note form

bedf is american trust at

bedf is en colima

bedf is brand name for sale us

bedf

名字:CliveByday

is homm

6ff1 is patch for men

6ff1 visit web site online is

6ff1

名字:AaritByday

is import canada

6ff1 is ganze nacht

6ff1

名字:LiyaByday

is purchase chemist

6468 compri is professionale

6468 is women price in india

6468

名字:KazarianByday

pfizer workshops is

f8d3

名字:NadyaByday

is 400 mg

f371 achat at is

f371

名字:DubrowByday

can you split is pills

f8f0 light orange is pills

f8f0 is remboursement secu

f8f0

名字:DioninaByday

price of is winnipeg

6ff1

名字:StormsByday

is nebeneffekte

370d prix de is au maroc

370d be is bangladesh

370d

名字:AlfredByday

53e911 compren la pldora viagra



<a href="https://viagratodo20.com/">how to get viagra without a doctor</a>

名字:DazidenriX

buy british dragon cialis
cialis for women cancer category
<a href="https://viagenusa.com">viagra for sale</a> - viagra information blog not logged in
https://viagenusa.com/# - viagra without prescription
pharmacy online cialis uk

名字:SullivanByday

is sale in uk

d937 shop is hk

d937

名字:SidneeByday

genuine is dealers

130e is lily pharmacie canada

130e is 20 effets indesirables

130e

名字:DeacyByday

is 5 mg tablette

6468 is 10mg lilly

6468 is pills ebay

6468

名字:JalaByday

cheap price for chinese is

370d is o affin

370d acheter is 50 mg pfizer

370d india order online is

370d

名字:IrinaByday

is for women australia

cdb6

名字:ZinonByday

isohnerezeptkaufenne

6ff1 total sales is 2010

6ff1 short term loans for georgia residents

6ff1

名字:XanderByday

subscribe to is newsletter

1e80 now at is melbourne

1e80

名字:TraxByday

look there real is online

370d

名字:TraxByday

is baratos

370d

名字:LegnonByday

canadian at 40mg is

53e7

名字:LegnonByday

is coupon free

53e7

名字:MilaByday

we like it is oral gel

41c8 research websites for college students

41c8 acheter du is ou is

41c8 female is new zealand

41c8

名字:VlasovByday

is sans ordonnance acheter

370d united is

370d is for mental ed

370d can i take priligy and is

370d

名字:ValleByday

only for you order is pill

aa64 cost is daily use

aa64

名字:ValleByday

at is authenticity

aa64 nebenwirkungen is

aa64

名字:SelinaByday

is in der apotheke kaufen

370d

名字:SelinaByday

only here at is india

370d

名字:SelinaByday

is coupon walmart

370d

名字:ZorinaByday

custom business plan

1612 the best place cananda is

1612 acheter is net forum

1612

名字:ZorinaByday

business plan help online

1612 is sconto

1612 safe at is india

1612

名字:WalelaByday

beisinsydney

d937

名字:GalyaByday

is order online discount

bedf

名字:DmyaByday

is is generika

370d age range of is users

370d is how much does it cost

370d

名字:CarrellByday

is effective time

aa64 is shipping guaranteed

aa64 adderall is

aa64 is 20 mg cheap

aa64

名字:TomaByday

is di prescrizione

49e2

名字:VipByday

where to be is from thane

6468 being is online in usa

6468 ordre de procs is

6468

名字:LanaByday

is online london paypal

99a2 generische is is

99a2

名字:TimofeevaByday

is 5 mg online kaufen

9d11 is 10 mg beipackzette

9d11 business plan writer connecticut

9d11

名字:NoraByday

is italia online

154b is para sirve

154b or 20mg is

154b

名字:DavidByday

is generique pas cher

2e8a is gel tabs uk

2e8a

名字:AlissonByday

843e21 femal viagra

https://viagratodo20.com/ - how to get viagra without a doctor

名字:PrellByday

cialis 10 mg users group

http://cialisuqwc.com/ - cialis for sale

<a href="http://cialisuqwc.com/">cialis online</a>buy cialis san diego pharmacy

http://cialisuyew.com/ - cheap cialis online

<a href="http://cialisuyew.com/">online cialis</a>24100 cialis 20mg generic

http://cialisyytr.com/ - cheap cialis

<a href="http://cialisyytr.com/">buy cialis online</a>cialis spanien kaufen

http://ciaviagogogo.com/ - cialis online

<a href="http://ciaviagogogo.com/">cheap cialis online</a>

名字:KhoiByday

is angioplasty

bedf

名字:SashaByday

is york get

c51a is pricing vs is

c51a composicao is ato

c51a

名字:NikonovByday

atsuperis

130e is 5mg lilly 28st fta

130e

名字:LizochkaByday

vendo is madrid

5a26 usefull link is best price

5a26 is 100mg cost cvs

5a26 is at walmart price

5a26

名字:OliverByday

be book report

bd65 we recommend search is

bd65 is mejor que el is

bd65

名字:EgorByday

watermelon and is

99a2

名字:MironovByday

does aarp pay for is

1612

名字:Sienna

Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I acquire actually enjoyed account your blog posts.
Anyway I will be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently quickly.

write an essay
https://allbestessaywritingservice.com/

名字:Azdreshall

groups cialis uk generic
cialis 5 mg coupon the team
<a href="https://tadalafil6.com">tadalafil 20 mg</a> - viagra from canada cheap last post by
https://tadalafil6.com/# - cost of tadalafil generic at walgreens
diferencia entre viagra y cialis

名字:Glinda

I'm really enjoying the design and layout of your website.
It's a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable for
me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a designer to create your
theme? Excellent work!
argumentative paper
https://toppaperwritinghelp.com/

名字:DaimeEncaw

cialis facts
cialis online overnight hot thread with no new posts
<a href="https://ciapharmshark.com">cialis tadalafil</a> - cialis 20 mg cost delete all board cookies
https://ciapharmshark.com - cialis tadalafil 20 mg cialis pills cheap user name

名字:Marilyn

I think the admin of this web site is in fact working hard in support of his web
site, as here every information is quality based
material.
handwriting paper
https://essaywritingusauk.com/

名字:Emily

With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright infringement?
My website has a lot of completely unique content I've either created myself or outsourced
but it looks like a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my permission. Do you know any ways to help
prevent content from being ripped off? I'd definitely
appreciate it.
essay thesis
https://essaywritingtld.com/

名字:Clarence

Hey there! I realize this is sort of off-topic but I had to ask.
Does managing a well-established blog like yours take a large amount
of work? I am completely new to operating a blog but I do write in my diary everyday.
I'd like to start a blog so I can share my personal experience
and thoughts online. Please let me know if you have any kind
of suggestions or tips for brand new aspiring blog owners.
Appreciate it!
help with an essay
https://buyessayscc.com/

名字:Lauri

Wonderful, what a webpage it is! This website presents helpful data to us, keep it
up.
academic papers
https://onlineessayforyou.com/

名字:Cole

This is very interesting, You're a very skilld blogger.
I've joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your faqntastic post.

Also, I have sharred your site in my social networks!
help with essay
https://bestessaywritingservice.info

名字:Sheri

Greetings I am so thrilled I found your webpage, I really
found youu by mistake, while I was researchijg on Bing for something else, Regardless I am here now and
would just like to sayy thanks a lot for a incredible post and a all round thrilling blog (I apso love the theme/design), I don’t have timme to
browse it all at the minute but I have book-marked it
and als added in your RSS feeds, soo when I hace time I will be back to
read mudh more, Please do keep up the excellent b.
essay paper
https://essaywritingservicereddit.info/cheap-essays-writing-service.html

名字:Georgia

Hello there! This article could not be written any better!
Looking through this post reminds me of my previous roommate!
He constantly kept preaching about this. I am going to send this article to him.
Pretty sure he will have a very good read. Many thanms forr sharing!

essay paper
https://cultureessaytopics515.tumblr.com/

名字:Shana

What's up, I read your blog liike evgery week. Your story-telling
style is witty, kdep doing what you're doing!
writing a paper
https://highqualitywritingservice.com

名字:ZefJut

inspire home loans
if i owe on student loans can i go back to school
<a href="https://loansqaz.com/#">pay day loan
</a> - does the extra unsubsidized loans for healthcare include masters in counseling
https://loansqaz.com/# - online loans
loans online cash advance

名字:Darell

Today, while I was at work, my sistfer stolee my iPad and tested to see if it can survive a forty foot
drop,just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now destroyed and
she has 83 views. I know this is completely off topic but I had to share it with someone!

https://bartlebywrite.info
essay phrases used in writing
essay phrases used in writing
https://servicethesis.info

名字:Zasontag

cbd dosage for sleep
cannabidiol capsules
<a href="https://cbd7hemp.com/#">cbd oil near me
</a> - how long does cbd last in your system
https://cbd7hemp.com/# - pure cbd oil
how long does cbd effect last

名字:Herbert

After going over a handful of the blog posts on your blog,
I really appreciate your way of writing a blog. I bookmarked it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back iin the
near future. Please visit my web site too and
let me know how you feel.
https://graduatepapers3777.weebly.com/blog/teaching-informative-writing-in-first-grade
write my research paper for me
research papers
https://descriptiveessay9623.weebly.com/blog/essay-writer-for-hire-at-professional-essay-writing-service

名字:Harry

magnificent put up, very informative. I'm wondering why
the opposite specialists oof this sector don't notice this.

You must continue your writing. I'm sure, you have a great readers' base already!

https://smileworkinking.com
australian essay writing service
australian essay writing service (Ilene)
https://smileworkinking.com

名字:Manual

I like the valuable information you supply on your articles.
I'll bookmark your weblog and check again right here regularly.
I'm relatively sure I will be told a lot of new stuff right right here!

Best of luck for the following!
https://wowworkinking.com
essay writing services
essay witing services - Jens,
https://smileworkinking.com

名字:Alfredo

When I initially coommented I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me
when new comments are added- checkbox and from nnow on whenever a comment
is added I recieve 4emails with the same comment.
Perhaps there iis a way you are able to remove me from that service?
Kudos!
https://writingmypaper.com
custom writing service
custom writing service
https://writingmypaper.com

名字:Celinda

If your articles are more up to date then the latest articles published by TikTok,
then they are less likely to be rejected by Google. The reason for this is because Google views this
as being less relevant.
purchase real tiktok likes
purchase real tiktok likes

名字:Elena

Hi, every time i used to check webpage posts here in the early hours in the morning, for the reason that
i enjoy to find oout more and more.
https://helpwriting.info
write a paper for me
write a paper for me
https://writeanessayforme.info

名字:Normand

Does your website have a contact page? I'm having problems locating it but, I'd
like to send you an e-mail. I've got some ideas forr your blog you
might be interested in hearing. Eiter way, great blog and Ilook forward to seeing it develop ovfer time.

https://writingmypaper.info/
essay paper writing
essay paper writing
https://writingmypaper.info/

名字:Brady

Yesterday,while I was at work, my sister stole my apple ipad and tested to see if it can survive a 30 foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPaad is now destroyed and she has 83 views.

I know this is entirely off toipic but I had to share it with someone!

https://orderessaycheap.com
buy essay writing
buy essay writing
https://orderessaycheap.com

名字:Taj

Excellent beat ! I would like to apprentice at the same time as you amend your web site,
how can i subscribe for a blog website? The account
aided me a acceptable deal. I had been a little bit acquainted of
this your broadcast offered shiny clear concept
https://buyessayprices.com
paper writers
paper writers
https://buyessayprices.com/

名字:Lesli

Hello just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text
in your post seem to be running off the screen in Chrome.
I'm not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with web browser compatibility but I figured I'd post to let you know.
The layout look great though! Hope you get the problem resolved
soon. Thanks
https://essayhelpforall.com/
writing services
writing services
https://essayhelpforall.com/

名字:DonaldNen

trusted canadian pharmacy <a href=" http://canadianuspharmacy.com/# ">canadian pharmacies shipping usa</a> canadian pharmacy without prescription

名字:ZrankTeent

graph on sildenafil,levitra,vardenafil potency&47;streanths
cheapest levitra, levitra and levitra uk
<a href="https://levtr20mg.com/#">buy levitra online
</a> - levitra and alcohol safe board index
https://levtr20mg.com/# - levitra vs viagra
levitra reviews user additional information

名字:Carol

I'vebeen exploring for a little bitt for any high-quality articles or blog posts in this
sort of space . Exploring in Yahoo I eventually stumbled upon this site.
Studying this information So i am glad to convey that I have a very good uncanny feeling I
discovered just hat I needed. I such a lot for sure will make certain to don?t disregard this website and provides it
a glance regularly.
https://australianessaywritingservice.info/how-to-type-a-poem.html
college essay writing
college essay writing
https://australianessaywritingservice.info/writing-a-level-history-essays.html

名字:Wenjumma

buy generic viagra online https://bestviagranda.com/ generic viagra online

money loans <a href="https://usapaydaygo.com/#">pay day loans</a> pay day loans <a href="https://paydayusexpress.com/#">loans for bad credit</a> personal loan rates <a href="https://onlineloanforme.com/#">payday loans</a> bad credit payday loans <a href="http://payday4myway.com/#">direct payday lenders</a> quick cash advance online <a href="http://payallmydaycash.com/#">fast cash loans for bad credit</a> loans with bad credit

名字:Insurdy

buy generic viagra online https://bestviagranda.com/ buy generic viagra

pay day loans <a href="https://usapaydaygo.com/#">loans for bad credit</a> payday loans direct lenders <a href="https://paydayusexpress.com/#">fast cash loans</a> pay day loans <a href="https://onlineloanforme.com/#">loans for bad credit</a> payday express <a href="http://payday4myway.com/#">online loans</a> payday loans direct lender <a href="http://payallmydaycash.com/#">loans for bad credit</a> payday loans

名字:Jacquetta

Heyy I know this iis off topic buut I was wondering if
you knew of any widgets I could add tto my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
I've been looking for a plug-in like this foor quite some time and was hoping
maybe you wluld have some experience with something like this.
Pleae let me know if you runn into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blogg and I ook
forward tto your new updates.
https://www.paccsresearch.org.uk/blog/governments-turn-academics-advice-radicalisation-religion-security/
best law essay writing service
best law essay writing service
https://world.edu/governments-turn-academics-advice-radicalisation-religion-security/

名字:the best essay writing service

Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though
you relied on the video to make your point. You obviously know what youre
talking about, why waste your intelligence on just posting
videos to your weblog when you could be giving us something informative
to read?
https://medium.com/@belenhouknqv8/crna-admission-essay-c16e232d3ba9
the bst essay writing service
the best essay writing service
https://roberspxdoj4wqn.medium.com/literary-analysis-ee0b1ee67927 https://medium.com/@belenhouknqv8/crna-admission-essay-c16e232d3ba9

名字:cheap essays

You're so awesome! I do not believe I've read something like that before.
So great to discover somebody with unique thoughts on this
issue. Really.. many thanks for starting this up.
This webskte is one thing that is required on the internet, someone with some originality!

https://placplanip.medium.com/act-writing-prompts-b091006f26a9
cheap essays
cheap essays
https://duncanofgc4u8s.medium.com/should-animals-be-kept-in-zoos-argumentative-essay-7fa9daad19ef https://geminceyqp.medium.com/examples-of-essay-841e4f550d41

名字:Amber

I truly love your site.. Very nice colors & theme. Did you build this site yourself?

Please reply back as I'm looking to create my own personal
blog and would like to learn where you got this from or just what the theme is called.

Thanks!
https://termpaperwriterservice.com
application essay writing service
application essay writing service
https://termpaperwriterservice.com/

名字:Horacio

It's in fact very complicated in this full oof activity life to listen news on Television, so I only
use web for that reason, and get the hottest news.

https://ordertermpaperonline.com
application essay writibg service
application essay writing service
https://ordertermpaperonline.com

名字:Luz

I was curious if you ever thought of changing the layout of
your website? Its very well written; I love what yuve got too say.
But maybe you could a littoe more inn the way of
content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having
one or 2 pictures. Maybe you could space it out better?

http://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Book_Tower
top rated essay writing service
top rated essay writing service
https://kuttler.eu/en/wordpress-plugin/a-better-tag-cloud-widget/

名字:help me write an essay

Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your weblog and in accession capital to assert that I acquire
actually enjoyed account your blog posts. Any way I'll be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently fast.

https://marcustaborn1m0.medium.com/college-admission-essay-examples-about-yourself-133962b9405c
help me write an essay
help me write an essay
https://melicentudp1mck.medium.com/future-plan-essay-d2cbc10655c4 https://roddieehrweda.medium.com/personal-code-of-ethics-essay-57b16e17a810

名字:zen liquid kratom review

I am really inspired along with your writing talents as neatly as
with the format for your blog. Is this a aid theme or did you
customize it yourself? Either way keep uup the nice high quality writing, it's uncommon to seee a great blog like thbis one today..

https://kratomwwwtea.com
zen liquid kratom review https://kratomwwwtea.com

名字:Fevbcaura

viagra over night <a href="https://wowviaprice.com/#">where to buy viagra online</a> how much generic viagra costs without insurance

名字:college paper writing

Hello there! Quick question that's completely off topic.
Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My weeb site looks weird whern viewing from
mmy apple iphone. I'm trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able
to resolove this issue. If you have any suggestions,
plese share. Thanks!
http://naijaoptions.blogspot.com/2017/04/how-to-reduce-stress-10-relaxation.html
college paper writing
college paper writing
https://www.nairaland.com/ https://blogs.music.indiana.edu/

名字:scholarship essay writing service

I'm no longer positive the place you are getting your info, but great topic.
I needs to spend some time finding out more or understanding more.
Thanks for wonderful info I used to bee looking for this info for my mission.
http://www.evaluationessaythesis.sitew.us/
scholarship essay writing service
scholarship esszy writing service https://howtowriteanessay28058749.wordpress.com/

名字:generic cialis

Hey there, I think your website might be having browser compatibility issues.When I look at your blog site in Firefox,
it looks fine but whesn opening in Internet Explorer,
it has some overlapping. I juust wanted to give you a
quick heads up! Other then that, wonderful
blog!
https://clients1.google.co.mz/url?q=


generic cialis
generic cialis https://clients1.google.com.ai/url?q=

名字:Janeen

Whats up very nice blog!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb ..
I'll bookmark your website and take the feeds also? I am happy to search out
so many helpful information here within the submit, we'd llike develop extra strategies on this regard, thanks for sharing.
. . . . .
https://buyessayonlinereviews.com
essay writing sites
essay writing sites
https://buyessayonlinereviews.com

名字:Esmeralda

Hi there! I'm at work surfing around your blog from my
new iphone! Just wanted to say I love reading through
your blog and look forward to all your posts! Keep up
the fantastic work!
https://orderessayusukau.com/
buy essay writing service
buy essay writing service
https://orderessayusukau.com/

名字:buy essay paper

I have beenn exploring for a little for any high-quality articles or weblog posts on this sort
of area . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upoin this site.

Reading this information So i'm glad to show that I've a
very excellent uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed.
I most surely will make sure too do not omit this website and provides it a
glance on a continuing basis.
https://orderessayonlineuk.com/
buy essay paper
buy essay paper
https://orderessayonlineuk.com/ https://orderessayonlineuk.com/

名字:JsweLence

buy cheap viagra canada <a href="https://mygoviagar.com/#">where to buy viagra in india</a> where to buy sildenafil online

名字:Fmsgcaura

what does viagra cost at cvs <a href="https://siviagmen.com/#">free prescription of viagra</a> snopes viagra headquarters photo

名字:Fdbvfoode

how to order sildenafil from canada <a href="https://hopeviagrin.com/#">buy viagra online without a prescription</a> female viagra mexico

名字:write an essay for me

Thanks for your personal marvelous posting! I seriously enjoyed reading it, you might be a great author.I will be sure to booomark your blog and may comje
back down the road. I want to encourage you to continue your great writing, have a nice holiday weekend!

http://livingmississippi.blogspot.com/2011/07/grassroots-blues-festival.html
write an essay for me
write an essay for me http://www.gnbs.org/gnbs/pages/blues-artist-band-and-related-links/blues-related-links.php

名字:writing an essay for college

Hi,I do thjink this is a great site. I stumbledupon it ;) I will come back once again since I bookmarked
it. Money and freedom is the greatest wayy to change, may you be rich and continue to help others.

https://www.albanyautism.org/
writing an essay for college
writing an essay for college https://www.dinleytyr.com/

名字:write my essay

Definitely imagine that wwhich you stated. Your favorite
reason appeared to be on thhe internet the easiest thing to
understand of. I say to you, I definitely get irked even as other people think about concerns that they just doo not recognuse about.
You maanaged tto hiit the nail pon the highest and
also outlined out the whole thing with no need side effect , other folks can take
a signal. Will likely be again to get more. Thank you
https://www.patreon.com/posts/44329426
write my essay
write my essay https://spark.adobe.com/page/KxDPAt8uTyXMC/

名字:top rated essay writing service

Heya! I know this is kind of off-topic however I needed to ask.

Does building a well-established blog such as yours take a lot of
work? I'm completely new to blogging however I do write in my journal very day.
I'd like to start a blog so I will be able to shar my own experience
and thoughts online. Please let me know if yyou have any kind
of recommendations or tips for new aspiring bloggers. Thankyou!

https://compare-and-c8618.hpage.com/
top rated essay writin service
top raqted essaay writing service https://www.patreon.com/posts/44333116

名字:Bryon

Great post. I used to be checking constantly this blog and I
am impressed! Extremely useful information particularly the ultimwte part :) I
care for such info a lot. I was seeking this certain information for a
lpng time. Thanks and good luck.
https://digitalessaywriters.com
best college essay writing service
best college essay writing service
https://digitalessaywriters.com

名字:lena.tixonovast65

Perfect update of captcha regignizing software "XEvil 5.0":

Captcha breaking of Google (ReCaptcha-2 and ReCaptcha-3), Facebook, BitFinex, Bing, MailRu, SolveMedia, Steam,
and more than 12000 another size-types of captchas,
with highest precision (80..100%) and highest speed (100 img per second).
You can use XEvil 5.0 with any most popular SEO/SMM programms: iMacros, XRumer, SERP Parser, GSA SER, RankerX, ZennoPoster, Scrapebox, Senuke, FaucetCollector and more than 100 of other software.

Interested? You can find a lot of impessive videos about XEvil in YouTube.

FREE DEMO AVAILABLE!

See you later!


XEvil Net

名字:Smulley

Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back to your blog? My blog is in the very same area of interest as yours and my users would certainly benefit from some of the information you provide here. Please let me know if this ok with you. Appreciate it!
http://drejtesia.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=user&id=924876

名字:omiskmix

walmart pharmacy viagra cialis pills <a href="https://bestmensclin.com/">buy generic cialis</a> cialis pills discount

名字:Ysvohpc

general practice physician medical school rankings research - <a href=https://vardenafilz.com>levitra 20 mg cost walmart</a> rrfsdu Yxqwpig.

名字:free local dating sites

dating online free,online dating free
manumit neighbourhood dating sites
<a href=http://datingfreetns.com/?>free dating sites</a>

名字:free local dating sites

dating sites,free dating websites
empty dating position
<a href=http://datingfreetns.com/?>free dating sites</a>

名字:KlioRant

viagra pink online paypal <a href="http://bestviagrx.com/#">viagra uk</a> best place to buy real viagra online viagra cialis meds <a href="http://viarxhd.com/#">cheap viagra reviews</a> viagra on line free viagra samples boynton beach <a href="http://viagetpill.com/#">cialis or viagra</a> viagra costs walmart order viagra in israel <a href="http://pillexrx.com/#">canada viagra</a> viagra interac online online viagra australia <a href="http://usggrxmed.com/#">generic viagra best buys</a> newsletter viagra

名字:Nlbxfoode

canadian viagra paypal <a href="http://viashoprx.com/#">in singapore where to buy viagra</a> where to buy viagra in toronto,with paypal option viagra 4free <a href="http://xviagarrx.com/#">buy generic viagra online in uk</a> viagra users group alternativ over the counter viagra <a href="http://viagraviagria.com/#">online viagra on sale edmonton</a> need viagra today viagra online 365 <a href="http://asgenviagria.com/#">viagra on line pay pall australia</a> generic viagra 100mg buy viagra in spain <a href="http://viagengen.com/#">viagra from china</a> viagra line

名字:JvcxLence

generic cheap viagra <a href="http://fmedrx.com/#">generic viagra</a> best viagra sites red viagra <a href="http://edabcrx.com/#">generic viagra in australia</a> viagra for sale is posssible buy viagra no prescription at walgrees? <a href="http://abcrxmed.com/#">viagra online\\</a> viagra buy usa address overnight delivery cheap pfizer viagra online <a href="http://cialedrx.com/#">how to get viagra without a doctor</a> viagra from canada viagra usa <a href="http://hitrxmenvia.com/#">paypal viagra</a> viagra price with prescription

名字:Lindalauct

有人在家Anybody :)

XEvil4.0:最好的反ReCaptcha-2解决方案

XEvil.Net

名字:Jbbvcaura

list of legitimate canadian pharmacies <a href="http://canadianpharmnorx.com/ ">pharmacy in canada</a> Viagra Oral Jelly

名字:Ahkdcaura

Cialis Super Active <a href="http://storerxpharmcanada.com/ ">motion sickness</a> canadian pharmacy viagra brand

名字:Lindalauct

http://salexrumer.site - XRumer 19.0 + XEvil 5.0: NEW 打破任何验证码的revolutional软件

http://xrumersale.site/img/recaptchav2.gif

1.)强大的人工智能:XEvil OCR可以解决超过12000种不同类型的验证码,
包括这样的流行,像谷歌验证码的ReCaptcha v2,v3(在XEvil4.0超只!),Captcha.Com,SolveMedia,Bing-Captcha,
Facebook的验证码和Ucoz-验证码,DLE-验证码,VBulletin-验证码,和很多其他类型的!

2.)极高的速度和精确度:识别速度0.01。. 每个图像的0.02秒(但在演示版本中只有1秒!),
XEvil可以绕过和解决类型的验证码的高精度的宽幽灵,
不依赖于困难,失真,噪音,字体,颜色。

例外的是谷歌ReCaptcha-2:每个解决方案约20-30秒,
在ReCaptcha-2需要点击很多图像有一个特殊的延迟。

3.)非常简单的UI:只需3个主要按钮即可开始识别,
完全兼容100+流行programms,
所以很容易与搜索引擎优化,SMM,分析广泛的幽灵程序使用,
大量自动注册/发布/发送/加密货币挖掘程序。

有兴趣?? ;)
只需在google"XEvil For Free"中进行搜索即可。
免费试用版可用!

感谢您的关注! :)

http://xrumersale.site/

名字:Aviayvd

how to cure arthritis pain how often a day to administor hemp oil for dogs arthritis [url=https://doctorkiva.com]buy viagra online[/url] gyi98e Uebsjwys what to drink with viagra.

名字:Lbsxcaura

canadianpharmacyusa24h <a href="https://ssviagriia.com/ ">cheaper viagra pills</a> canada viagra

名字:JbnbLence

canada pharmacies <a href="http://online21rxon.com/ ">pharmacie canadienne</a> canadian rx

名字:Fqhhcaura

anti-depressants <a href="http://happyrxpharmacy21.com/ ">no prescription pharmacies</a> compare prescription prices

名字:Jbbncaura

cialis e parkinson <a href="http://ljcialishe.com/ ">cialis-kaufen austria</a> cialis 5 mg foglio illustrativo

名字:KuikWothe

online viagra <a href="http://viagerkr.com/ ">how to purchase viagra</a> viagra store espanol

名字:Fvfcfoode

viagra jelly online <a href="http://hopeviagrin.com/ ">viagra clone</a> walgreen viagra cost per pill

名字:Ahbzcaura

tata docomo advance loan <a href="http://daymoneygo.com/ ">payday loans elgin tx</a> no middleman payday loans

名字:KvaxRant

cash advance more expensive <a href="http://rirocash.com/ ">usa payday loan company</a> cash loan advance online

名字:Labxcaura

making cialis work faster <a href="https://jecialisbn.com/ ">buy cialis online cheap</a> is generic cialis safe and effective

名字:Nbnhfoode

viagra cost in usa <a href="http://vigedon.com/ ">generic women viagra </a> viagra 10mg price in india

名字:JbnvLence

new jersey payday loans laws <a href="http://samcash21.com/ ">victoria secret cash advance</a> cash advance nearby

名字:Fqbbcaura

out of state payday loans <a href="http://ascashapply.com/ ">easy no hassle payday loans</a> ge money loan usa

名字:snort kratom

Haave you ever thought about including a little
bit more than just your articles? I mean, what yyou say is impoortant and
everything. Nevertheless think abvout if you added some great
pictures or video ckips to give you posts more,
"pop"! Your content is excellent but with images and video
clips, this bog could certainly be one of the very bezt
in its field. Wonderful blog!
https://kratomwwwtea.com/where-to-buy-kratom.html
snort kratom
snort kratom https://kratomwwwtea.com/where-to-buy-kratom.html

名字:Uhdql60

cheaper prices viagra newt gingrich health care reform there safe place buy viagra online <a href="https://viawithoutdctrs.com/#">viagra online no prescription</a> - penser cialis https://viawithoutdctrs.com/# - cialis no prescription united states how can i find my iphone health data from the icloud